Companion webpage

This is the companion webpage to the article titled

Aspects of tempo and rhythmic elaboration in Hindustani music: A corpus study

Ajay Srinivasamurthy, Andre Holzapfel, Kaustuv Kanti Ganguli and Xavier Serra


This paper provides insights into aspects of tempo and rhythmic elaboration in Hindustani music, based on a study of a large corpus of recorded performances. Typical tempo developments and stress patterns within a metrical cycle are computed, which we refer to as tempo and rhythm patterns, respectively. Rhythm patterns that emerge out of our study reflect prototypical percussion patterns that occur in the corpus, and enable a discussion of their relation to the underlying metrical framework, the tāl. Tempo patterns, on the other hand, document the dynamic development of tempo throughout a metrical cycle. They reveal interesting insights into the flexibility of time in Hindustani music for the first time using quantitative methods on a large set of performances. Focusing on the aspect of rhythm, our paper demonstrates the value of a computational methodology for the analyses of large corpora of music performance recordings.


Resource page for Hindustani taals

PhD thesis companion page of Ajay Srinivasamurthy


The examples here are audio excerpts for the examples discussed in Section 4 of the paper.

Section 4.1 Tempo dynamics: examples

Each of the examples below span one taal cycle and have audible sam and matras. The sam click is louder and of lower pitch while the matra clicks have are softer with a higher pitch.

1. Fig 11(a): Excerpt from a piece in vilambit teentaal, Raag Multani from the release titled Raag Bhimpalasi & Multani by Omkar Dadarkar (Time: 12:35 to 13:20)


2. Fig 11(b): Excerpt from a piece in drut teentaal, Rag Bhavmat Bhairav (Teental) from the release titled Raga Bhairav Ke Prakaar by Kumar Gandharva (Time: 03:04 to 03:08)


3. Fig 11(c): Excerpt from a piece in vilambit jhaptal, Raag Hameer from the release titled Raag Jog & Hameer by Brajeshwar Mukherjee (Time: 04:21 to 04:29)

Section 4.2 Rhythm patterns: examples

Each of the examples below span two consecutive taal cycles as described in the paper and have audible sam clicks. 

1. Fig 12: Excerpt from a piece in drut teentaal, Raga Lalit from the release titled Master Pieces by Abdul Latif Khan (Time: 26:27 to 26:40)


2. Fig 13: Excerpt from a piece in drut ektaal, Tarapa Tarapa - Drut Ektaal from the release titled Kaushiki by Kaushiki Desikan (Time 00:57 to 01:04)



The dataset used in this study is the Hindustani Music Rhythm (HMR) dataset. More details about the dataset:


The code to generate the spectral flux feature, tempo and rhythm patterns are available under open non-commercial licenses. Please contact us if you want to use the code.


For access to data, code or if you have any questions/comments, please contact:

Ajay Srinivasamurthy


The audio examples listed here are from commercial releases. They are presented as illustrations for non-commercial academic purposes only. The copyright rests with respective owners. No copyright infringement is intended.